He also thinks that there is some potential for quantum information processing. “An atomic system has very good coherence properties, but the dynamics are slow. In solid state systems, the dynamics are faster, but the coherence is washed out in a shorter time. Maybe atoms could be used as quantum memory and the solid state system as a fast quantum processor.” Treutlein pauses and then laughs. “But I’m not sure yet if that would work. Our main focus isn’t really on building a quantum computer.”But what he and his colleagues are building is interesting enough on its own. “This hybrid quantum system, if it works like we think it will, would give us great insight into fundamental physics.” In an email, Treutlein expounds: “For example, we would like to see whether one can use the Bose-Einstein condensate, composed of a few thousand atoms, to engineer the quantum state of the resonator, composed of several billions of atoms, and how such a large quantum system behaves.”The work has its challenges, though. “We have to be able to prepare the mechanical oscillator at very low temperatures to see quantum effects. And we have to combine the state of the art technology from quantum optics and solid-state physics, which is very challenging,” Treutlein admits. “We are looking into the long-term here.”“Even though we’ve proposed a theory,” he explains, “we mostly work experimentally, so we see both sides. We know how difficult this might be to realize in the laboratory. But it also means that we try very hard to make realistic assumptions.”He continues: “It seems to us that we could make such a hybrid quantum system a reality. But it doesn’t mean it’s easy.”Visit the Munich Atom Chip Group at www.munichatomchip.de/Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. The atom without properties Citation: Combining solid-state physics with quantum optics (2007, October 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-10-combining-solid-state-physics-quantum-optics.html One of the more interesting advances in science is the use of the atom chip. As the demands of technology require smaller and smaller components, studying the fundamentals of physics at the quantum level will become increasingly important. The Munich Atom Chip Group, under the direction of Theodor Hänsch at the University of Munich and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics is working to find ways to learn more about physics at the most fundamental levels. Explore further “We have studied in detail whether it is possible to prepare cold atoms close to a solid state chip surface without losing coherence properties,” Philipp Treutlein, a member of the research group, tells PhysOrg.com. “We showed that it is possible to prepare coherent superpositions of atomic quantum states at only a few micrometers distance from a solid surface.” The next step, he says, is to “put something interesting on the surface and see how it will interact with the atoms, and whether the interaction reveals quantum effects.” The result? A hybrid quantum system that would allow physicists to explore interactions between solid state systems and quantum optical systems – and possibly lead to other, more specific applications. Treutlein and his coauthors, David Hunger, Stephan Camerer and Theodor Hänsch from the University of Munich, as well as Jakob Reichel at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris, discuss their theory in a piece titled, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Coupled to a Nanomechanical Resonator on an Atom Chip,” published in Physical Review Letters.Treutlein emphasizes that right now this hybrid quantum system is at the theoretical stage. “We are experimentalists, though,” he says, “and we are working with the solid-state physics group of Professor [Jörg] Kotthaus to get it to work in the laboratory.” The hybrid system the group is investigating is composed of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms and a nanomechanical cantilever resonator. “We take a small cantilever, a nano-sized cantilever, and put a small magnet on the tip. When the cantilever vibrates, it shakes the magnet, and thus generates an oscillatory magnetic field. This oscillatory field couples to the spin of the atoms which are hovering above the cantilever tip, inducing spin flips,” Treutlein explains. “The spin flips are the signal which we will detect, and they give us information about the coupling” between the solid-state cantilever and the atoms.Treutlein believes there is potential for future applications of this work. “We’re only at the very beginning of exploring this system experimentally,” he points out. “When we see what the fundamental dynamics are, and whether it works, we can decide on specific applications.” But he does think that such hybrid systems could be useful sensors for magnetic fields. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org) — French company Eole Water has announced that they have developed and are now in the process of selling wind turbines that have been modified to produce fresh drinking water. Company reps say the new turbines should be a boon to remote communities that have limited access to fresh drinking water. Citation: French company uses wind turbine to create fresh water (2012, May 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-french-company-turbine-fresh.html The initial product, called the WMS1000 is capable, the company claims, of producing up to 1000 liters of clean fresh water every day in a humid climate. They also say the turbines are based on existing technology and are easy to maintain and use.The turbines work by combining two current types of technology; traditional generation of electricity using wind as the driving force, and compressors commonly used by dehumidifiers and refrigerators. Anyone who has ever seen a dehumidifier in action can understand right away how the new turbines work. Air is pulled in, cooled and compressed, causing moisture in it to condense to water where it can be removed and used. The new turbines create electricity in the same way as other wind generators, some of which is used to run the compressor. The water that is produced drips down to the base of the turbine tower where it is filtered and delivered for use. Most that buy and use such a system would also likely need to add a collecting tank to hold water for use during peak times.Eole Water has also added extra features to the turbine and tower to make them more robust. One of those is large filters on the front of the turbine to keep out dust and dirt particles. Another is the ability to easily raise and lower the entire turbine and tower for maintenance and repair. The company claims one tower would be able to produce all the water needed for a town of two to three thousand people, though of course that would depend on where the town is located. Those in arid areas would find water output much less as there would be less water available to pull from the air.The new turbines do have one major drawback and that is the price, which is close to three quarters of a million US dollars per system, though the company says it expects that figure to decline as more units are made and sold. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2012 Phys.Org Computer model optimizes wind farm
More information: More ties than we thought, arXiv:1401.8242 [cs.FL] arxiv.org/abs/1401.8242AbstractWe extend the existing enumeration of neck tie knots to include tie knots with a textured front, tied with the narrow end of a tie. These tie knots have gained popularity in recent years, based on reconstructions of a costume detail from The Matrix Reloaded, and are explicitly ruled out in the enumeration by Fink and Mao (2000). We show that the relaxed tie knot description language that comprehensively describes these extended tie knot classes is either context sensitive or context free. It has a sub-language that covers all the knots that inspired the work, and that is regular. From this regular sub-language we enumerate 177 147 distinct tie knots that seem tieable with a normal necktie. These are found through an enumeration of 2 046 winding patterns that can be varied by tucking the tie under itself at various points along the winding. Most men don’t consider more than one, two or maybe three ways to tie their tie, if they tie one at all—but the fact is, there are far more ways to do it than most would ever imagine and because of that mathematicians have at times set themselves the task of trying to discern if the number is finite, and if so, what that number might be.Back in 1999, a pair of researches (Yong Mao and Thomas Fink) with the University of Cambridge came up with a mathematical language to describe all the actions that can be performed in tying a tie and used it to calculate that the total number of possible outcomes was a very reasonable 85. In this new effort the researchers say that number is far too small because it leaves out some good possibilities. They’ve extended the mathematical language and have used it to create a new upper limit—177,147.Vejdemo-Johansson apparently came to believe that the number produced by Mao and Fink was too small after noting the unique tie knot in the movie “The Matrix Reloaded”—a knot that didn’t appear in the researchers list, which meant something wasn’t quite right. In reexamining the criteria that Mao and Fink used for inclusion, they noted the pair restricted the number of tucks that would occur at the end of the tie tying, to just one. The pair, it was noted, also assumed that any knot created would naturally be covered in part by a flat section of fabric. Also, they restricted the number of windings that could be made to just eight, believing any more than that would cause the tie to become too short.Vejdemo-Johansson adjusted the parameters and added nomenclature for describing tie movements and after putting it all together, used their new math language to calculate the new total number of possible tie knots—though, it might not be the last word—some of their parameter assignments, such as setting the maximum winds at 11, for example, could perhaps be adjusted for longer ties, or those made of much thinner material. Explore further Citation: Mathematicians calculate that there are 177,147 ways to knot a tie (2014, February 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-mathematicians-ways.html Mobius strip ties liquid crystal in knots to produce tomorrow’s materials and photonic devices (Phys.org) —A small team of mathematicians, led by Mikael Vejdemo-Johansson of the of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, has uploaded a paper to the preprint server arXiv describing a mathematical process they used to determine that the number of ways to tie a tie is 177,147—far more than previous research has suggested. Journal information: arXiv © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Different examples of tie knots. Left, a 4-in-hand; middle, a double windsor; right a trinity. The 4-in-hand and double windsor share the ﬂat fac¸ade but have different bodies producing different shapes. The trinity has a completely different fac¸ade, produced by a different wind and tuck pattern. Credit: arXiv:1401.8242 [cs.FL]
Credit: David Wagner/public domain Journal information: Biology Letters First study of arthropods in US homes finds huge biodiversity © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Urban ecologists have been observing how socioeconomics impact species diversity for nearly two decades. Previous studies have determined that higher affluence is frequently associated with more biological diversity across species of plants, birds, bats, and lizards–a phenomenon coined the “luxury effect.” Scientists have only recently begun examining the relationship between socioeconomics and arthropods, a group that includes insects and their close relatives. Arthropods can have six legs (like moths), eight legs (like spiders), or sometimes one hundred legs (like centipedes), and fly or wander from the outside environment into the indoor world. The image above highlights an arthropod often identified indoors: the book louse.”The biodiversity of the indoor environment is still a relatively unexplored area of research,” says Michelle Trautwein, co-author and curator of entomology at the Academy. “Our houses are really permeable and dynamic. Through our studies, we hope to inspire citizens all over the globe to get curious about the species in their everyday lives. We still have so much to learn about indoor ecology and the ever-evolving relationship between humans and arthropods.” Credit: © Matt Bertone of North Carolina State University Explore further (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the California Academy of Sciences and North Carolina State University has found that homes in wealthy neighborhoods tend to harbor more arthropod species than do homes in places that are less affluent. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the team describes how they conducted an arthropod survey of homes from a variety of locations throughout the Raleigh, North Carolina area, what they found and possible reasons for the differences. A common arthropod scientists encounter in the home: the carpet beetle. Credit: © Matt Bertone and North Carolina State University Citation: Homes in wealthier neighborhoods found to harbor more arthropod species (2016, August 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-08-homes-wealthier-neighborhoods-harbor-arthropod.html More information: Misha Leong et al. Exoskeletons and economics: indoor arthropod diversity increases in affluent neighbourhoods, Biology Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0322AbstractIn urban ecosystems, socioeconomics contribute to patterns of biodiversity. The ‘luxury effect’, in which wealthier neighbourhoods are more biologically diverse, has been observed for plants, birds, bats and lizards. Here, we used data from a survey of indoor arthropod diversity (defined throughout as family-level richness) from 50 urban houses and found that house size, surrounding vegetation, as well as mean neighbourhood income best predict the number of kinds of arthropods found indoors. Our finding, that homes in wealthier neighbourhoods host higher indoor arthropod diversity (consisting of primarily non-pest species), shows that the luxury effect can extend to the indoor environment. The effect of mean neighbourhood income on indoor arthropod diversity was particularly strong for individual houses that lacked high surrounding vegetation ground cover, suggesting that neighbourhood dynamics can compensate for local choices of homeowners. Our work suggests that the management of neighbourhoods and cities can have effects on biodiversity that can extend from trees and birds all the way to the arthropod life in bedrooms and basements.Press release In studying the numbers, the researchers found that the average home in a wealthy neighborhood had approximately 100 different species of arthropods in it, whereas those in less expensive neighborhoods had roughly half that number. The researchers suggest the discrepancy is due to differences in the environment outside of the homes. Richer neighborhoods tend to have houses with lush gardens and parks and the people that live there tend to expend more time and money on them resulting in more places for bugs to breed. Most people know that sometimes bugs get into their houses—flies, ants, mosquitoes and other insects are quite common, though most people do their best to get rid of them. What most people probably do not know is that a lot of other types of bugs live in their home as well—most of which they never see. Many of these bugs are arthropods—invertebrate animals such as spiders, crustaceans and other insects. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about the diversity of these bugs in homes. They note also that prior studies had found that richer neighborhoods tended to have more plant and animal diversity in areas outside of the home. For this study, they wanted to know what was going on inside.As the researchers also note, few studies have looked at biodiversity in the home, which is unfortunate as people spend on average 90 percent of their time indoors—which means sharing space with a plethora of other creatures. To gain some perspective, the researchers fanned out across the city of Raleigh asking homeowners if they would allow a survey to be conducted—the team wound up gaining access to approximately 50 homes, all within forty miles of the downtown area, from a variety of neighborhoods.
One of the ways that scientists are learning about diseases, particularly those that are hereditary in nature, is by sequencing the genomes of large groups of people—doing so enables searching for variants that cause or contribute to a given disease—the ultimate goal would be to sequence every single person on Earth. In this new effort, the researchers have sequenced the genomes of 150 people in Denmark (from 50 family trios) of Danish descent—native Inuits and immigrants were screened out.The effort, the researchers report, was carried out partly to create a Danish reference catalog and partly to learn how to conduct large-scale genome sequencing. They note that such a project required the combined efforts of multiple people and organizations working in coordinated fashion. Ultimately, the project cost approximately $10 million.One major aspect of the project was selecting technology and determining how many people to sequence. The team wound up using samples from 50 families and did the sequencing using both combinations of paired-end and mate-pair libraries with the Illumina HiSeq2000. They note also that de novo assemblies were used because the researchers believed other approaches left out pertinent information. De novo refers to deriving a peptide sequence from a mass spectrum without the use of a sequence database. It is the preferred approach to sequencing when the aim is to identify novel peptides in organisms that have not been previously sequenced. The researchers report very few gaps in the data. They also note that three assemblies were used: Allpaths-LG14, SOAPdenovo2 and SGA. Accuracy was measured by comparing their results with the human reference genome.The researchers hope that their effort will lead to improved medical interpretation of genetics in Denmark. Explore further Citation: Researchers conduct sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes in Denmark (2017, July 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-sequencing-de-novo-genomes-denmark.html Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A depiction of the double helical structure of DNA. Its four coding units (A, T, C, G) are color-coded in pink, orange, purple and yellow. Credit: NHGRI © 2017 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A large international team of researchers has developed a Danish reference genome catalog based on the de novo assembly of 150 genomes sequenced from 50 family trios. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes the multi-year effort, its purpose, and where they believe such efforts are leading. Genome sequencing of individual Korean offers opportunity to identify parts of sequence unique to Korean population More information: Lasse Maretty et al. Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature23264AbstractHundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set of structural variants including many novel insertions and demonstrate how this variant catalogue enables further deciphering of known association mapping signals. We leverage the assemblies to provide 100 completely resolved major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and to resolve major parts of the Y chromosome. Our study provides a regional reference genome that we expect will improve the power of future association mapping studies and hence pave the way for precision medicine initiatives, which now are being launched in many countries including Denmark.
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers at the University of Washington has created microscopic assemblies for packaging genetic material that they call synthetic nucleocapsids. The team hopes the assemblies can one day be used to treat patients with cellular-level problems by delivering appropriate therapies to the cells that could benefit from them. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes their assemblies and what they have done with them thus far. A hairpin loop from a pre-mRNA. Highlighted are the nucleobases (green) and the ribose-phosphate backbone (blue). Note that this is a single strand of RNA that folds back upon itself. Credit: Vossman/ Wikipedia © 2017 Phys.org Explore further Citation: A new way to deliver mRNA genomes: Nucleocapsids with evolutionary properties (2017, December 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-12-mrna-genomes-nucleocapsids-evolutionary-properties.html More information: Gabriel L. Butterfield et al. Evolution of a designed protein assembly encapsulating its own RNA genome, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature25157AbstractThe challenges of evolution in a complex biochemical environment, coupling genotype to phenotype and protecting the genetic material, are solved elegantly in biological systems by the encapsulation of nucleic acids. In the simplest examples, viruses use capsids to surround their genomes. Although these naturally occurring systems have been modified to change their tropism and to display proteins or peptides, billions of years of evolution have favoured efficiency at the expense of modularity, making viral capsids difficult to engineer. Synthetic systems composed of non-viral proteins could provide a ‘blank slate’ to evolve desired properties for drug delivery and other biomedical applications, while avoiding the safety risks and engineering challenges associated with viruses. Here we create synthetic nucleocapsids, which are computationally designed icosahedral protein assemblies with positively charged inner surfaces that can package their own full-length mRNA genomes. We explore the ability of these nucleocapsids to evolve virus-like properties by generating diversified populations using Escherichia coli as an expression host. Several generations of evolution resulted in markedly improved genome packaging (more than 133-fold), stability in blood (from less than 3.7% to 71% of packaged RNA protected after 6 hours of treatment), and in vivo circulation time (from less than 5 minutes to approximately 4.5 hours). The resulting synthetic nucleocapsids package one full-length RNA genome for every 11 icosahedral assemblies, similar to the best recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors. Our results show that there are simple evolutionary paths through which protein assemblies can acquire virus-like genome packaging and protection. Considerable effort has been directed at ‘top-down’ modification of viruses to be safe and effective for drug delivery and vaccine applications; the ability to design synthetic nanomaterials computationally and to optimize them through evolution now enables a complementary ‘bottom-up’ approach with considerable advantages in programmability and control.Press release The development of the assemblies was part of an overall program dedicated to mRNA delivery. mRNA, the team explains, are the molecules that cells use to send messages between DNA (the blueprint) and the proteins that reside in the cells. The idea for the nucleocapsids came from viruses, the group further explains, which encapsulate their payloads as a means of protecting them. In designing their own delivery system, the researchers used proteins to build assemblies containing their own RNA genome. The assemblies can evolve indirectly, the team notes—assemblies are created and then injected into test mice. After a period of time has elapsed, blood is drawn from the test mice and examined to see how well the assembly delivered its load to targeted cells. Changes can then be made to improve desirable characteristics. The researchers note that the technique allows for large leaps in improvement after just a few iterations. They found, for example, that they could improve the survival rate of an RNA package injected into a mouse after six hours from 3.7 percent to 71 percent. They also found that they could slow circulation time inside of a mouse, from five minutes to four and a half hours, giving an assembly more time to do its job.The will continue to work with the synthetic nucleocapsids, looking for ways not only to improve performance, but to allow for targeting specific types of cells and carrying a wider range of payloads—including RNA, DNA, and proteins and small-molecule drugs. They are hoping the end product will be a delivery system that can be used to battle cancer, heart disease, and other ailments that involve problems with cells. Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Designer proteins that package genetic material could help deliver gene therapy
Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Study of Google search histories reveals relationship between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS sentiment in U.S. (2018, June 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-google-histories-reveals-relationship-anti-muslim.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain A trio of researchers from Duke University and the University of California has found that Google search data can offer insights into the relationship between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS sentiment in the U.S. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, Christopher Bail, Friedolin Merhout and Peng Ding discuss their study and what they found. © 2018 Phys.org Journal information: Science Advances In the modern age, as travel and technology have improved, global terrorism has become a major threat. Because of that, those in charge of protecting people from terrorism have instituted policies and defense mechanisms. Sometimes, the researchers note, those policies involve targeting groups for special investigation. It is no secret that Muslims are the most highly targeted group because of the connection between Islam and groups such as the Taliban and ISIS. But, the researchers suggest, targeting groups in countries such as the U.S. might be causing home-grown radicalization to occur.To learn more about radicalization of Muslim extremists in the U.S., the researchers accessed publicly available data from Google search engine queries. Queries, they noted, can be done looking for phrases such as “I hate Muslims” or “How do I join ISIS?” Data from the searches was then cross-checked with data provided by the U.S. Census, allowing the researchers to see where those searches were coming from at the community level.The researchers found a common theme—in low income communities where there were a lot of anti-Muslim searches, there were also a lot of searches by people looking for more information about radical Islamic groups. Such communities, the researchers further noted, tended to be homogeneous in nature, mostly white, with few people of color. People from the Middle East, they point out, stand out in such communities. This finding, they claim, suggests that anti-Muslim activities such as discrimination and being targeted by government officials might actually be pushing some of those targeted people toward becoming extremists. They suggest that if the goal is to slow or stop radicalization of people living in the U.S., another approach might be needed. They also point out that evidence from other studies has shown that assimilation tends to lead to reduced radicalization. More information: Christopher A. Bail et al. Using Internet search data to examine the relationship between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS sentiment in U.S. counties, Science Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5948AbstractRecent terrorist attacks by first- and second-generation immigrants in the United States and Europe indicate that radicalization may result from the failure of ethnic integration—or the rise of intergroup prejudice in communities where “home-grown” extremists are raised. Yet, these community-level drivers are notoriously difficult to study because public opinion surveys provide biased measures of both prejudice and radicalization. We examine the relationship between anti-Muslim and pro-ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) Internet searches in 3099 U.S. counties between 2014 and 2016 using instrumental variable models that control for various community-level factors associated with radicalization. We find that anti-Muslim searches are strongly associated with pro-ISIS searches—particularly in communities with high levels of poverty and ethnic homogeneity. Although more research is needed to verify the causal nature of this relationship, this finding suggests that minority groups may be more susceptible to radicalization if they experience discrimination in settings where they are isolated and therefore highly visible—or in communities where they compete with majority groups for limited financial resources. We evaluate the validity of our findings using several other data sources and discuss the implications of our findings for the study of terrorism and intergroup relations, as well as immigration and counterterrorism policies. Are current efforts to combat terrorism actually increasing the risk of future attacks?
When developing the new X-ray suitable, hematein-based stain, the commonly used Mayer’s hematoxylin and Wiegert’s iron hematoxylin were included in its constitution. The staining experiments were conducted on the tissue of mouse liver lobule, used for X-ray CT-imaging thereafter. The optimized staining protocol contained five steps starting with controlled acidification of soft-tissue samples during fixation. The soft-tissue was prepared on the molecular level to stain with the hematein lead (II) complex. In its mechanism of action, the scientists showed strengthened ionic interaction between the positively charged hematein lead (II) complex and the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The chemical reaction ensured higher accumulation of the staining agent within the cell nuclei by forming a hematein lead (II) DNA complex, as an X-ray suitable agent. Histology is used to identify structural details of tissue at the microscale in the pathology lab, but analyses remain two-dimensional (2D) as they are limited to the same plane. Nondestructive 3D technologies including X-ray micro and nano-computed tomography (nanoCT) have proven validity to understand anatomical structures, since they allow arbitrary viewing angles and 3D structural detail. However, low attenuation of soft tissue has hampered their application in the field of 3D virtual histology. In a recent study, now published on Scientific Reports, Mark Müller and colleagues at the Department of Physics and Bioengineering have developed a hematein-based X-ray staining method to specifically target cell nuclei, followed by demonstrations on a whole liver lobule of a mouse. Citation: Nucleus-specific X-ray stain for 3-D virtual histology (2018, December 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-nucleus-specific-x-ray-d-virtual-histology.html The scientists comparatively confirmed 3D data reconstruction accuracy in the study with previous investigations. When the hematein-based procedure was re-applied in conventional 2D histology investigations, the scientists also applied a standard counter-stain, eosin Y specific, to the cell cytoplasm on to the tissue. In the results, the cell nuclei remained purple while the cytoplasm took up the pink stain. In this way, the scientists authenticated the nuclei-specific hematein-based staining capacity with standard histology as well. Explore further The X-ray suitable, nucleus-specific staining agent protocol for 3D virtual histology. Staining protocol and interaction of the hematein-based X-ray stain with soft tissue. (A) The developed hematein-based staining procedure shows the individual steps involved including incubation and staining times. Staining step 1 was conducted using lead(II) acetate trihydrate as the heavy metal source. The lead(II) acetate trihydrate was dissolved in distilled water and is referred to as working solution (A) (WS (A)). The staining step 2 involved a hematein solution in absolute ethanol (WS (B), 10% (w/v); c = 333 mM), which was derived from hematoxylin and was added to WS (A). (B) The positively charged hematein lead(II) complex (purple), which is built in situ in the soft-tissue sample, is interacting with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the DNA (orange) present in the nucleus of the cell. The selective interaction of the hematein lead(II) complex with the DNA is achieved by acidification of the soft tissue during fixation or before staining and allows for a higher accumulation of the hematein lead(II) complex within the cell nucleus. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y New staining method enables Nano-CT imaging of tissue samples Journal information: Scientific Reports NanoCT data (A–C) in comparison with the histological microscopic slide (D) derived from the same mouse liver lobule after application of the hematein-based X-ray staining protocol. Clear visualization of the larger hepatocyte cell nuclei and the smaller cell nuclei such as Kupffer cells and SECs in white (A–C) or dark purple (D) and the BC network displayed in black (A-C) or white (D) was achieved, respectively. (A) The volume of interest (VOI) highlighting the two nanoCT slices shown in (B, blue frame) and (C, orange frame). (B, C) Representative individual nanoCT slices as indicated in the VOI from (A). (B) and (C) are positioned orthogonal to each other. The orientation of the BC network, which is formed by the hepatocytes is seen, i.e. more horizontal arrangement is seen in (B) and a more vertical alignment in (C). The nanoCT slice thickness is 580 nm. (D) Representative histological microscopic slide with a thickness of 3 µm obtained from the same mouse liver lobule sample after applying the hematein-based stain and embedding it in a paraffin block. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y. During the first diagnosis in clinical pathology, the cell nuclei and cytoplasm are of significance. Almost every histological sample is therefore often stained via the standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) protocol to identify the nuclei and cytoplasm. But standards for the hematoxylin stain are not fixed and many variants to the protocol exist due to diverse tissue types and/or pre-treatment parameters involved. As a result, Müller et al. introduced a hematein-based staining protocol, specifically developed for CT, to allow for direct 3D visualization of cell nuclei in soft-tissue samples. The powerful potential of microCT or nanoCT combined with X-ray suitable stains will allow future insights into tissue organization to understand disease including osteoarthritis and cancer, at the cellular nanoarchitecture. © 2018 Science X Network To compare the staining efficacy, the mouse liver lobule tissue was imaged with microCT before staining, followed by imaging after hematein-protocol based staining. The staining process occurred in two steps and the desired contrast enhancement was achieved as expected after staining. The results were observed using the microCT overview to show distinct anatomical structures, including the vasculature. The staining was homogenous within the entire mouse liver lobule, unlike with previous examples in large liver tissue samples. The 3D imaging process allowed accessibility to a series of CT slices in arbitrary planes. Furthermore, unlike conventional 2D histology (with paraffin-embedded soft-tissue), the soft-tissue could be viewed from different angles.The tissue was next investigated at the sub-cellular level with smaller pieces of the same liver lobule, which were dissected and analyzed using nanoCT. The visualized results showed regions of the volume of interest (VOI), cell nuclei of the hepatocytes and nuclei of other cell types (Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells). Black whole structures represented the bile canalicular (BC) network while the darker gray values indicated the cytoplasm of the liver tissue sample. The orientation of the BC network was also observed. The tissue was then investigated with conventional histology, using very thin microscopic slides with no other staining aside from the hematein-based stain applied. The conventional technique similarly confirmed the morphology of hepatocytes and of other cell types (nuclei stained in dark purple), while the BC network was stained in white. CT slices of the same whole mouse liver lobule before and after staining highlighting the contrast enhancement obtained after application of the hematein-based X-ray stain. Both data sets were acquired with the Xradia Versa 500 microCT using identical acquisition parameters. The voxel size in both data sets is 13.5 µm. (A, C and E) Overview images of the unstained mouse liver lobule representing the views along the Cartesian axes. (B, D and F) Overview images of the same mouse liver lobule sample in (A, C and E) after staining representing the views along the Cartesian axes. Anatomical structures such as the vasculature are visualized. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y. 3D nuclei and analysis of different cell nuclei present in the mouse liver volume of interest (VOI). Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y. The hematein-based staining protocol aided high resolution CT visualization for cell nuclei in soft tissue at the sub-micron range, hitherto not possible with other staining methods that were combined with microCT technology. Future histopathological studies may be able to eliminate time-consuming preparation procedures and tissue sample loss (as seen with standard histology) to obtain individual tissue slices via 3D investigation of an entire VOI, as demonstrated in the present study. The ability to screen a larger sample for abnormal cell nuclei could assist pathologists to identify regions of inflammation to assess disease etiology and progression. The staining protocol is simple and reproducible, suited for whole-organ CT staining, coupled with 3D visualization and in-depth, non-destructive analysis of soft tissue samples. The staining agents listed in the protocol are easily accessible, while the CT combined X-ray suitable protocol allows greater sophistication for soft-tissue sample analyses. Steps in the staining protocol will require further optimization with different tissue types and in diverse applications, including 3D histology, developmental and structural biology studies in the lab. More information: 1. Mark Müller et al. Nucleus-specific X-ray stain for 3D virtual histology, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y2. Juliana Martins de S. e Silva et al. Three-dimensional non-destructive soft-tissue visualization with X-ray staining micro-tomography, Scientific Reports (2015). DOI: 10.1038/srep140883. X-ray microtomographic imaging of intact vertebrate embryos www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135670 , Metscher B.D. et al. December 2011, Cold Spring Harbor Protocol.4. Three-dimensional virtual histology enabled through cytoplasm-specific X-ray stain for microscopic and nanoscopic computed tomography www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29463748?dopt=Abstract, Busse M. et al. March 2018, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Demonstration of the histological compatibility of the for X-ray microCT and nanoCT developed hematein-based staining method with conventional 2D histology. (A) Representative histological microscopic slide with a thickness of 3 µm obtained from the same mouse liver lobule sample after the applied hematein-based staining and embedding in a paraffin block. Clear visualization of the larger hepatocyte cell nuclei and the smaller cell nuclei such as Kupffer cells and SECs in dark purple and the BC network displayed in white. (B) The compatibility with the standard counter stain of eosin Y was shown on a subsequent microscopic slide seen in (A). The cell nuclei are shown in purple next to the cytoplasm in pink resulting in a typical H&E stained microscopic slide of a soft-tissue sample. Credit: Scientific Reports, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36067-y. The novel staining protocol combined the recently developed, high resolution nanoCT system for 3D visualization of the tissue architecture at the nanometer scale. The results revealed the real 3D morphology alongside spatial distribution of cell nuclei. The technique was also compatible with conventional histology, as microscopic slides with soft tissue sample could be stained with the same protocol alongside additional counter-staining. The method demonstrated the possibility for future applications in histopathology accompanied with X-ray CT devices in the lab.Histology is the existing gold standard for an accurate microanatomical diagnosis in the pathology lab, however techniques and results are limited to 2D. For instance, a 3D biopsy is usually examined using very thin microscopic slides (containing 2-10 µm thick slices) via conventional and modern immunohistochemical and histological staining techniques. Micro- and nano-CT are powerful tools that can provide an accurate reconstruction of tissue in 3D. Developments on the technology have allowed comparatively high resolution to existing 2D conventional histology, using devices ranging from large particle accelerators to laboratory-based X-ray devices. Alongside the technical requirements, X-ray suitable staining agents (contrast agents) such as phototungstic acid (PTA), iodine potassium iodide (IKI), iodine in ethanol (12E), or iodine in methanol (12M) are also important. The available staining agents are however, currently limited in scope and efficacy. When developing next-generation medical diagnostics in histopathology, scientists aim to optimize the techniques and understand tissue architecture from the cellular level to the tissue scale. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Poorva Suhani Aayi Re is a Hindi serial which tells how a village girl Poorva, an illiterate, but highly motivated woman who through her courage and commitment gives a voice to her fellow villagers and makes them aware of the benefits of various welfare schemes and policies and helps them to improve their living standards. Poorva is married to the son of a wealthy, influential zamindar. The Zamindar was the chief decision maker and pradhan of the village. When the Government implemented fifty per cent reservation for women in the panchayats, this panchayat – Chaubeypur- also comes under reserved category. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Zamindar, to protect his interests to maintain his domination, appoints his daughter-in-law – Poorva- as pradhan, thinking that his superiority and hegemony would continue using her as an ‘angootha chaap’. Initially, Poorva, had to play in the hands of her husband and father-in-law. But gradually she comes in contact with the doctors, social activist and the community radio boy and she slowly understands the actual problems of the people and the reality in the village/ panchayat. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe serial takes the viewers how slowly she plays a pivotal role in shaping the future of the village/ panchayat, fight for people’s rights and empowering the voiceless.The serial is to be telecast in 52 episodes at 10 PM every Wednesday and Thursday, starting from 8 August on DD National. Poorva Suhani Aayi Re is bringing out a picture highlighting the rapid transformation towards development and will be a good treat for the viewers, especially in the rural areas.
After attracting a large number of artists, art connoisseurs, scholars, investors and students, the three – day National Art Exhibition of Hammeratag.com titled Art 4 Fortune that started on 27 May at All India Fine Arts and Crafts Society came to an end.The iconic art of over 100 artists and sculptors appealed even to the art buyers and generated sale enquiries of Rs. 19.50 lakhs as per the preliminary reports. The best part of the event was the even the lesser known talented artists were projected. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ As informed by Gayatri Vashistha, Managing Director, Hammerartag.com, ‘In view to fulfill the aspirations of art fraternity, the Hammerartag.com with its associates has geared up to launch its ambitious mission Art 4 Fortune comprising of Asian Art Icons Competition and Exhibition 2015, and it’s another mega Asian Art Bank, Web portal for Sale of Affordable Arts’. Hammeratag.com has also planned to hold an exclusive international painting competition titled ‘Save the Earth’ to create global awareness towards eco-friendly lifestyle. The painting competition will be organized in association with the international NGO, Pallavi Arts with active support of international Central/ State bodies, galleries, schools, corporates and organizations. The Award ceremony is scheduled to be held in Delhi on the World Art Day, 15 April, 2015 which marks auspicious birthday of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).